Early diabetes symptoms, especially type 2 diabetes, can be subtle or seemingly harmless — if you have them at all. You could have diabetes for months or even years and not have any diabetes symptoms.

If you’re experiencing any of the following diabetes signs and symptoms, see your doctor.

Excessive thirst and increased urination
Excessive thirst and increased urination are classic diabetes signs and symptoms.

When you have diabetes, excess sugar (glucose) builds up in your blood. Your kidneys are forced to work overtime to filter and absorb the excess sugar. If your kidneys can’t keep up, the excess sugar is excreted into your urine along with fluids drawn from your tissues. This triggers more frequent urination, which may leave you dehydrated. As you drink more fluids to quench your thirst, you’ll urinate even more.

You may feel fatigued. Many factors can contribute to this. They include dehydration from increased urination and your body’s inability to function properly, since it’s less able to use sugar for energy needs.

Weight loss
Weight fluctuations also fall under the umbrella of possible diabetes signs and symptoms. When you lose sugar through frequent urination, you also lose calories. At the same time, diabetes may keep the sugar from your food from reaching your cells — leading to constant hunger. The combined effect is potentially rapid weight loss, especially if you have type 1 diabetes.

Blurred vision
Diabetes symptoms sometimes involve your vision. High levels of blood sugar pull fluid from your tissues, including the lenses of your eyes. This affects your ability to focus.

Left untreated, diabetes can cause new blood vessels to form in your retina — the back part of your eye — as well as damage established vessels. For most people, these early changes do not cause vision problems. However, if these changes progress undetected, they can lead to vision loss and blindness.

Slow-healing sores or frequent infections
Doctors and people with diabetes have observed that infections seem more common if you have diabetes. Research in this area, however, has not proved whether this is entirely true, nor why. It may be that high levels of blood sugar impair your body’s natural healing process and your ability to fight infections. For women, bladder and vaginal infections are especially common.

Tingling hands and feet
Excess sugar in your blood can lead to nerve damage. You may notice tingling and loss of sensation in your hands and feet, as well as burning pain in your arms, hands, legs and feet.

Red, swollen, tender gums
Diabetes may weaken your ability to fight germs, which increases the risk of infection in your gums and in the bones that hold your teeth in place. Your gums may pull away from your teeth, your teeth may become loose, or you may develop sores or pockets of pus in your gums — especially if you
have a gum infection before diabetes develops.

Type 1 & Type 2 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is often referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes. It is also sometimes known as juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes because it often develops before the age of 40, usually during the teenage years.

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas (a small gland behind the stomach) does not produce any insulin. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. If the amount of glucose in the blood is too high, it can seriously damage the body’s organs.

If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin injections for life. You must also make sure that your blood glucose levels stay balanced by eating a healthy diet, taking regular exercise and having regular blood tests



Pre-diabetes is the early stage of developing diabetes type 2, where the blood sugar level is higher than normal, yet is not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. At this stage, there will be no symptoms of diabetes appearing such as, frequent urination, hunger, blurred vision, etc.

Pre-diabetes stage can last several years before reaching the diagnostic diabetes stage and can affect the body organs and causes damage to health through the elevation in the blood sugar, though it is mild.

Risk factors

Pre-diabetes at this stage can be prevented through proper diet, exercise and by following healthy lifestyle. The preventable risk factors are:-


Sedentary lifestyle

High blood pressure

High cholesterol and triglyceride levels

Smoking (active and passive)

Alcohol consumption

High level of stress

People with pre-diabetes may have genetic background for diabetes as a risk factor, but obesity, lack of activity and inappropriate diet are the most dominant risk factors.

Blood sugar levels for pre-diabetes

The normal fasting blood sugar level is below 100 mg/dl.
Pre-diabetes blood sugar level is between 100-126 mg/dl.
Diabetes blood sugar level is above 126 mg/dl (diagnostic test).
Pre-diabetes also can be identified by measuring the blood sugar 2 hours after consuming a meal or known amount of sugar, where the normal level is below 140 mg/dl, pre-diabetes stage between 140-200 mg/dl, and above 200 mg/dl for diabetes condition, as a diagnostic test.

Pre-diabetes is a serious medical condition affecting the eyes, kidneys, blood circulation, but mainly it affects the heart and arteries, and may lead to narrowing the arteries, causes chest pain and heart attack.